Listed here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http.org this is certainly://www.apastyle.
Your set of works cited must start at the conclusion of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, utilising the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials associated with the first and names that are middle given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of the paper, but abbreviate them when you look at the range of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and get consistent. Because of the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had absolutely no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you ought to still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names must be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of utilizing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the initial line of an entry should always be left that is flush while the second and subsequent lines ought to be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions for this rule could be periodical titles and proper names in a title that ought to nevertheless be capitalized. The title that is periodical run in title case, and is accompanied by the amount number which, utilizing the title, can also be italicized.
If you have one or more author, use an ampersand (&) ahead of the name regarding the last author. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the rest.
Put the date of publication in parentheses right after the name of the author. Place a period of time following the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes all over titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias essay writers, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time after the title. Then supply the page range (in regular type) without “pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in the current schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved day, year, from full URL month
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific document that is website. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that would go to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There is absolutely no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find a number of this given information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization in addition to relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.